Know Your Herbs

Cannabeginners: Esters

While most homebrewers know about esters, due to their role in creating flavors during yeast fermentation of alcohol, many cannabis consumers and businesses aren’t very knowledgeable about these exciting flavor and scent chemicals. Recent research has shown potentially notable medical effects, and one company even has a patent on some esters of THC.

While the term “ester” was coined in 1848 by the German chemist Leopold Gmelin, likely as a contraction for “essigäther,” which means “acetic ether” in German, their discovery goes back almost a century earlier. In 1759 the Count de Lauraguais performed the first synthesis of the ester ethyl acetate, marking one of the first, if not the first, examples of an ester being synthesized. Esters are derivatives of “a carboxylic acid, in which the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group has been replaced with an alkyl group,” and their structure is the product of an alcohol combined with the carboxylic acid.

The Role of Esters in Flavor and Scent

Like terpenes, esters are very common in plants, and are the cause of many of the odors and flavors of the plants we smell and food we eat. For example, wintergreen gets its odor and flavor from the ester methyl salicylate and pears smell and taste like they do because of propyl ethanoate. Similarly, some of the flavors and scents of cannabis are a result of esters

Esters vs. Phenols

Both esters and phenols are responsible for flavors and scents, but different types of flavors and scents. In the context of beer brewing, ester flavors are seen as desirable, good flavors, and phenol flavors are generally seen as undesirable, or bad flavors, but it depends on the beer and the palate of the person drinking it. Broadly speaking, phenol flavors are usually earthier or smokier, but they can also be clove-like. 

Courtesy Wikipedia

What Do Esters in Cannabis Do?

Before he passed, the Father of Cannabis Research, Raphael Mechoulam, was very involved in researching esters in cannabis. Specifically, Mechoulam was looking at cannabidiolic acid methyl ester, which is cannabidiolic acid  that has gone through a process of esterification. As his research demonstrated, esters are responsible for more than just flavor and may have medical benefits. Mechoulam’s team found that cannabidiolic acid methyl ester “is a potential medicine for treating some nausea and anxiety disorders and possibly other disorders ameliorated by enhancement of 5‐HT1A receptor activation.” A follow up study was done by Mechoulam and his colleagues where they gave cannabidiolic acid methyl ester to rats and found it “might modulate the sleep–wake cycle by engaging the hypothalamus.”

Research by Mahmoud A. ElSohly at NIDA’s cannabis research facility looking at cannabis esters made from acidic cannabinoids, and found that “CB-1 receptor assay indicated that the esters, as well as the parent acids, are not active.” That means they did not have an impact at the CB-1 receptor, and thus, should not produce feelings of intoxication/euphoria. ElSohly’s team also observed that 4-terpenyl cannabinolate “showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 90028.”

Aurora Cannabis actually has a patent on certain THC esters, but it is not clear if they are actively using their patented esters in any of their cannabis products.

Their Role in Alcohol Brewing

As esters are “formed by the reactions of organic acids and alcohols created during fermentation,” they play a big role in the brewing of alcohol, specifically, how yeasts impart different flavors and scents to alcohol. While other flavors can be added to beer and other alcohol by adding fruit, spices, and other botanicals, the flavor from esters is from yeast fermentation and is influenced by three main factors: the characteristics of the yeast, wort composition (nutrients), and the conditions of fermentation (environment). 

Some strains of yeast are known to produce higher levels of esters, such as the yeasts used in Bavarian wheat beers which often have high amounts of isoamyl acetate (a banana-like flavor). Wort composition can be simplified to the nutrients the yeast has access to and higher concentrations of sugar, zinc, and amino acids tend to lead to more esters. Other things, like dissolved oxygen and lipid content, can reduce the production of esters. The fermentation environment also plays a major role and it seems that shallower, more open, fermentation vessels lead to more esters. 

Esters aren’t just a major feature in beer, but also in spirits, most notably Jamaican rum. Jamaica has long been known for producing high ester rums, but in 1934 they passed the The Rum (Ether Control) Act, which, for the first time, imposed an ester limit for rum. That limit of 1600 gr/hlAA of esters is still enforced to this day by Jamaica’s Spirits Pool Association. If anyone was concerned that limit has to do with health and safety, it does not, and has a lot more to do with some quirks of the global alcohol market during the era of Prohibition. 

The post Cannabeginners: Esters appeared first on High Times.

Source: Hightimes

How Long Does Weed Stay in Your System?

Written and Fact Checked by: S. Zulfiqar

Whether you are a regular cannabis user and have lately wondered how long does marijuana stay in your system or just planning to give weed a try, you have come to the right place. We have gathered all the information regarding weed and for how long does weed stay in your hair, urine, or blood. Go through the rest of the article to know more about the topic.

There are plenty of factors to look at before concluding as to how long weed stays in your system. Let’s have a look at the contributing factors.

Let’s start from the top – how Long THC stay in Blood

Weed stays in your body for 1-30 days, but of course, it depends on the amount of dose you have consumed. As in, it’s one of the reasons. If you have consumed only a small amount of it, you would probably not even feel it, and your body flushes it out sooner than usual. But in case you have consumed more than you should, way more, then due to obvious reasons, it might stay in your system for longer than usual.

How Long Does Cannabis Stay in your System? It Depends on How Often You Consume it

If you are someone who uses weed every day, there are fat chances that your body will accept that it’s habitual of weed. Likewise, if you don’t consume much of it and when you, it’s strictly occasionally, your body tells you don’t do it regularly. In other words, how often you smoke it, along with how much you smoke, are two of the main reasons that will decide how long it will last in your system.

Similarly, as far as the daily weed smokers are concerned, traces of amounts in their body may be detectable even after months. Even if they have recently stopped consuming it, the chances are that it can be detected in your urine, blood or hair.

Coming to the detection methods, there are a lot of options that are used to detect the presence of weed 

They are as follows:

The saliva test: 

Wondering how long does THC stay in saliva? If you have been consuming weed, there is a chance that your saliva will contain traces of the plant as the standard time duration for the weed to last in the saliva of a consumer is between 32-48 hours.

The Urine test: 

 The second type of test is perhaps the most common amongst them all that tells how long does weed stay in urine. It’s the urine test. A person that does not frequently consume weed may test positive for about 2-3 days. Similarly, a person that usually uses weed like serval times a week might test positive for between 1-3 weeks. In comparison, a heavy stoner’s urine can be detected for weed for about a month.

The people that orally consume weed (by eating it) might result positive for about 2-3 days. 

Next up is the hair test: 

This might catch you as a surprise that weed in hair can be detected for as long as 90 days – 3 months, that is. The other side of it is that this test is usually carried out for people that are either medium or heavy users as studies have found that this test isn’t so effective for the people that are occasional smokers (light consumers). 

Finally, the popular blood test: 

You might already hear about this test, but like most people, you won’t exactly be able to tell the duration by which the use of marijuana can be detected. So the use of weed can be detected on the blood test for as many as 36 hours.

Some More Factors to Consider

So before we wrap it all up, let’s quickly have a look at the other factors that affect how long does THC stay in your system and will show up on the tests; they include:

  •  The THC levels in your weed: The higher the THC levels in your weed, the higher you’re going to feel, and the longer it would stay in your system.
  •  How often do you consume weed: The other factor is if you’re a frequent consumer or not. If you’re a regular consumer, it might well show up on the drug screen. If you’re not, you might get away with it.
  •  The last use: Another important factor is when you last used weed. If it’s some time recently, it’s going to pop up on the screen. And if it has been a while, you might get lucky.
  • It varies on a person’s system: There are some people whose bodies are quick in processing the THC. This means that their bodies get rid of the THC sooner than the rest of the people. So let’s hope you’re one of those people who have systems that quickly process marijuana.
  • The body’s hydration levels: It’s always good to have a hydrated body. There are chances that a good, hydrated body will get rid of marijuana far more quickly than the dehydrated ones. All the more reasons to start drinking more water. So if you haven’t been drinking much water, this is the time you should start drinking more water.

These are all the significant factors that can determine how long the weed stays in your system.

Also, this is an excellent reminder that we all should consume weed in moderation. The usage of weed in excess amounts is undoubtedly not going to help. So if you’re one of those people that frequently smoke and in large quantities, this is the time to slow down. Try reducing the amount of weed every time you are willing to have a joint session with your mates or by yourself. Another reason why you should stop using too much weed is the tolerance level. In case it increased, you might have to face difficulties in getting high in the first place.

Related Reads: Quick and Easy Guide to Taking Weed Edibles, 5 Myths and Truths about the Endocannabinoid System, Weed Edibles Guide


  • Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of cannabis and cannabis products. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2009.

The post How Long Does Weed Stay in Your System? appeared first on Just Cannabis.

Source: JCS

Is pure CBD the most medicinal part of cannabis?

The word on the street is that cannabidiol (CBD) is the most medicinal part of the cannabis plant. The non-intoxicating compound of marijuana has gained rock star status ever since Dr. Sanjay Gupta showed the world in his documentary Weed 2 that it has the power to control seizures in epilepsy patients. Read More
Source: tghop