Know Your Herbs

Wisconsin Supreme Court Rules Cannabis Odor Enough To Justify Search

The Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled this week that the scent of cannabis alone constitutes probable cause to justify a search by police, despite the legalization of other products such as hemp that have similar odors. The court’s conservative majority ruled in a 4-3 decision that police officers in Marshfield, Wisconsin, had enough probable cause to search a defendant after detecting the smell of cannabis in the car he was driving and declined to exclude evidence discovered during the warrantless search. The ruling overturns two lower court rulings that found the evidence gained in the search was inadmissible because officers could not be certain if they smelled marijuana, which is still illegal under Wisconsin state law, and hemp, an agricultural crop that was legalized by the federal government with the 2018 Farm Bill.

The court handed down the decision on Tuesday in the case of Quaheem Moore, a man who was pulled over for speeding in Marshfield by two police officers in 2019. In their report, the officers state that while talking to Moore, they detected a strong odor of burnt cannabis emanating from the vehicle. When questioned about the odor, Moore told the officers that he had a CBD vaping device and noted that the vehicle was a car that had been rented by his brother. 

Although they admitted that they did detect the odor of marijuana on Moore, the officers cited the scent of cannabis coming from the car as cause to search the vehicle and Moore. The officers stated that during the search, they noted that Moore’s belt buckle appeared to be askew and upon looking closer, discovered a bulge in his pants. After closer examination, the officers discovered a hidden pocket inside the zipper of Moore’s pants, where they discovered packets of fentanyl and cocaine.

Police then arrested Moore and charged him with possession of narcotics, although he was not charged with possession of marijuana. Moore’s lawyers argued that because the police officers did not smell marijuana on Moore and because of the legality of CBD and hemp, which has an odor indistinguishable from marijuana, the police officers did not have probable cause for the search. Thus, the drugs found in the search should be excluded from evidence.

A circuit court judge and an appeals court agreed and ruled that the evidence discovered in the search was not admissible. Prosecutors appealed the rulings, saying the lower courts erred when they ruled the evidence inadmissible for trial.

Decision Overrules Lower Courts in Wisconsin

The Supreme Court disagreed with the previous rulings, overruling the lower court decisions and deciding the evidence gained in the search could be used in court. In a majority opinion written by Justice Brian Hagedorn, the court’s conservative majority found that because Moore was the only person in the vehicle, the police could reasonably assume that he “was probably connected with the illegal substance the officers identified.”

The decision relied on a 1999 Supreme Court decision that found police could arrest a driver because they connected him to the odor of cannabis in the car he was driving. That ruling said that the “unmistakable” scent of a controlled substance was evidence that a crime had been committed.

But the Wisconsin Supreme Court’s liberal minority questioned the 1999 ruling and its relevance to Moore’s case, saying that the police officers did not have strong evidence that the cannabis odor was coming from Moore. They also noted that the earlier ruling is outdated and does not take into account the subsequent legalization of hemp and CBD. 

“Officers who believe they smell marijuana coming from a vehicle may just as likely be smelling raw or smoked hemp, which is not criminal activity,” Justice Rebecca Frank Dallet wrote in a dissenting opinion that was joined by two additional justices.

After Tuesday’s Supreme Court ruling was released, Moore’s attorney, Joshua Hargrove, warned that the decision could allow law enforcement offices to justify searches based on unreliable conclusions without being held accountable in court.

“This opinion could subject more citizens engaged in lawful behavior to arrest,” he said in a statement quoted by the Associated Press.

The post Wisconsin Supreme Court Rules Cannabis Odor Enough To Justify Search appeared first on High Times.

Source: Hightimes

Award-Winning Excellence: Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin Triumph at the High Times Hemp Cup

A double triumph at the esteemed High Times Hemp Cup – People’s Choice, both Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin from Hemp Hop®  have claimed impressive second-place victories in 2023 and 2020, beating out other vape cartridges and disposable vapes with their dabbable concentrates. These award-winning hemp cannabis concentrates have captivated judges and enthusiasts alike with their exceptional quality, distinct flavors, and potent effects. Join us as we delve into the world of Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin, exploring what sets them apart and why they have earned recognition as top-tier concentrates.

Use code HEMPCUP for 10% off your order of Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin at

Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar: The Harmony of Flavors and Genetics

Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar, a standout among hemp concentrates, blends the flavors and genetics of Sour Diesel and Suver Haze to create a truly exceptional strain. The pungent, invigorating characteristics of Sour Diesel intertwine with the sweet and earthy undertones of Suver Haze, resulting in a complex and captivating flavor profile. This unique combination delivers a sensory experience that is as memorable as it is delightful.

Courtesy Hemp Hop

Otto II Live Resin: Unleashing the Potency of the Otto II Strain

Otto II Live Resin, another second-place winner at the High Times Hemp Cup, showcases the potency and distinct qualities of the Otto II strain. Derived from selective breeding and years of cultivation expertise, Otto II is renowned for its high CBD content and minimal THC levels. The live resin extraction process preserves the delicate balance of cannabinoids and terpenes, resulting in a concentrate that embodies the essence of the Otto II strain. This award-winning concentrate delivers potent CBD effects, offering potential benefits such as relaxation, stress relief, and overall well-being.

Courtesy Hemp Hop

Craftsmanship and Quality: The Foundation of Award-Winning Concentrates

Both Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin exemplify the commitment to craftsmanship and quality that defines top-tier concentrates. From the selection of premium hemp plants to the meticulous extraction process, every step is executed with precision and expertise. These award-winning concentrates undergo rigorous quality control measures to ensure purity, potency, and consistency.

With the focus on quality, Hemp Hop® employs advanced extraction techniques, such as live sugar extraction for Sour Suver Haze and live resin extraction for Otto II, to capture the full spectrum of flavors and beneficial compounds. The result is concentrates that provide an unmatched sensory experience, elevating the enjoyment of hemp to new heights.

A Symphony of Flavors and Effects

Both award-winning concentrates entice the senses with their distinctive flavors and effects. 

Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar delights with its sour and citrusy notes derived from Sour Diesel, complemented by the sweet and earthy nuances of Suver Haze. This harmonious fusion of flavors creates a multifaceted taste experience.

On the other hand, Otto II Live Resin presents a more subtle flavor profile, allowing the natural terpenes of the Otto II strain to shine. The delicate blend of terpenes contributes to its unique aroma and smooth inhale, enhancing the overall experience.

In terms of effects, Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar offers a well-rounded experience that combines relaxation, clarity, and euphoria. Otto II Live Resin, with its high CBD content and minimal THC levels, provides a non-intoxicating experience that promotes a sense of calm and balance.

Courtesy Hemp Hop

The second-place victories of both Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin at the High Times Hemp Cup highlight their exceptional quality, distinctive flavors, and potent effects. These award-winning hemp cannabis concentrates represent the pinnacle of craftsmanship and dedication to delivering an unparalleled experience. Whether you seek a complex flavor journey or the potential therapeutic benefits of CBD, Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin offer an invitation to indulge in the extraordinary world of hemp concentrates. Save an extra 10% off both award-winning products at with the code HEMPCUP.

Introducing new Connoisseur Hash and Disposable Vapes!

The excellence doesn’t stop at award-winning concentrates. Join us as we explore the world of Hemp Hop® connoisseur products, including Dry Sift Hash and Temple Ball Hash, while also introducing their latest addition, the revolutionary Disposable Vapes.

Courtesy Hemp Hop

Dry Sift Hash and Temple Ball Hash: The Essence of Tradition 

Hemp Hop®  takes pride in preserving hemp culture by offering connoisseur products like Dry Sift Hash and Temple Ball Hash. Dry Sift Hash, created through a meticulous sifting process that separates trichome heads from the plant material, yields a concentrated product with rich flavors and potent effects. Temple Ball Hash, a time-honored tradition, involves hand-rolling resinous trichomes into a ball-shaped concentrate that embodies the artistry and heritage of hash-making. Both Dry Sift Hash and Temple Ball Hash offer an opportunity to experience the legacy of hemp in its purest form.

Introducing the Revolutionary Disposable Vapes 

Innovation meets convenience with the newest addition to Hemp Hop®: Disposable Vapes. Designed for on-the-go enthusiasts, these sleek and discreet vapes provide a hassle-free experience without compromising on quality or flavor. Each Disposable Vape is pre-filled with a carefully crafted blend of hemp-derived extracts, delivering a consistent and enjoyable vaping experience at a low-temperature. These carefully crafted Disposable Vapes have a 5-second preheat function for huge clouds, are rechargeable, and offer simplicity and portability, perfect for those seeking a convenient way to incorporate hemp into their lifestyle.

Courtesy Hemp Hop

Celebrate the triumph of Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin while exploring the world of connoisseur products at Hemp Hop®. From the exquisite craftsmanship of Dry Sift Hash and the timeless tradition of Temple Ball Hash to the revolutionary convenience of Disposable Vapes, Hemp Hop®  continues to redefine the hemp experience. Elevate your journey with their award-winning concentrates and indulge in the rich heritage and innovative offerings that Hemp Hop® proudly presents.

Courtesy Hemp Hop

The post Award-Winning Excellence: Sour Suver Haze Live Sugar and Otto II Live Resin Triumph at the High Times Hemp Cup appeared first on High Times.

Source: Hightimes

Ditch the Old Terminology (An Indica / Sativa Response)

I have been a student of cannabis since the first time I smoked a joint in 1979 while battling cancer and undergoing both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The gracious herb was in many ways my savior and it caused me to become dedicated to learning as much as I could about it. One of my favorite teachers is Robert Clarke who wrote the books, The Botany and Ecology of Cannabis in 1977, Marijuana Botany in 1981, HASHISH! in 1998 and Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany released in 2013. We’ve been close friends since 1994, and in the 1990s Robert was teaching us that Indica and sativa were basically incorrect terminology, and that Afghan cannabis should be considered within its own classification.

In 2004 and after five long years, I got out of federal prison for growing cannabis after the passing of the 1996 California medical marijuana law. I picked up Rob for the first time in a long time to go smoke a joint, and he asked me if I remembered what he taught me about Indica, sativa and Afghan. I told him that I did remember, and he smiled and said to forget it because that’s not what researchers believe anymore.

Our understanding of the planet is changing daily, as science reveals more of life’s secrets, it causes us to look at the way we understand things differently.

Initially, we used Indica and sativa different ways, depending on if you were a grower or a consumer.

To a cultivator, Indica meant a short broad leaflet plant that grew tight and stocky, yielded well and finished flowering quickly. Sativa, meant the plant was tropical/equatorial with narrow leaflets and took next to forever to finish flowering.

To a consumer, Indica meant something that was a heavy high that was deep, relaxing and often not so energetic. On the other hand, sativa was translated to mean that it would be more energetics, almost like drinking coffee, in the way that it wakes you up and motivates you, and more psychedelic, with a buzz that leaves you daydreaming about the universe.

To science, it meant something else entirely.

When the cannabis taxonomy was first being written in 1753, Carl Linnaeus was essentially aware of only one type of cannabis: the European hemp variety of Cannabis that he added the suffix “sativa”, which at the time simply meant to grow or to sow. This type of cannabis was used industrially for ropes, cloth, paper, paints and varnishes, but surprisingly, not for the drug content.

Robert Clarke often jokes that scientifically speaking, nobody smokes “sativa” because all drug varieties are “Indica”.

In 1785, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis from India which was used for it’s drug content and he named it “Cannabis Indica”.

Cannabis that was coming from India and many other items that originated from India used the term “Indica”. But what becomes more confusing to our modern use of the term is that there are all types of cannabis growing in India and leaf morphology does not tell the whole story.

In Northern India along the Hindu Kush mountains, you will find broadleaf drug cannabis and as you travel south to Goa, you will find very narrow leaflet drug plants that are all 100% Indica.

You can also find non-drug industrial hemp/cannabis varieties growing all over the world that have both narrow leaflets and broad leaflets. The flowers look amazing and make copious quantities of trichomes, but they will not get you high.

In 2013, Robert Clarke launched a new taxonomy in the world of cannabis, the problem is, it’s a bit complex. Robert breaks down the varieties as follows:

Broad Leaflet Drug = BLD

Narrow Leaflet Drug = NLD

Broad Leaf Hemp = BLH

Narrow Leaf Hemp = NLH

Robert also has another category for ancestors, as there are varieties of cannabis growing around the world that have escaped human cultivation and have become feral once again. For this he uses “PA” for punitive ancestor.

Robert’s 21st century cannabis taxonomy has been around for 10 years now and while it makes a lot of sense, it’s not catching on. I think this is mostly because it’s too complex for people to grasp easily, but that is to be expected considering Robert is a scientist and if you read any of his books, you will see that they are very detailed and well referenced.

The modern cannabis market is made up of hybrids which are incredibly hard to classify as Northern or tropical, Indica, or sativa, because they have attributes of both.

The effects we feel when we smoke or vaporize are controlled by the cannabinoids and terpenes which modulate the effects of the cannabinoids. The analogy I would use is that getting high is like getting on an airplane, the cannabinoids bring you up to altitude and the terpenes are the rudders that control the whole flight.

The terpenes are so important that the entire experience from the bud can be ruined if the bud is over dried, because when it is over dried, the terpenes evaporate and the bud does not taste or smell anywhere near as good as it did when it was fresh.

The Emerald Cup, which is one of the largest cannabis competitions in the world, recently started dividing the entries into six different terpene categories, which they call the love language of cannabis:

Myrcenethis is the most common terpene found in cannabis, varieties that have it are Skunk #1, Northern Lights, Blue Dream, and OG Kush

a Pineneis found in pine needles and is responsible for the piney scent in Northern Lights #5

Limoneneis found in lemons and other citrus-based fruit and gives a wonderfully uplifting energy that can also be quite medicinal with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Varieties that smell like a lemon dessert usually have high amounts of limonene, such as Wedding Cake, and Mac.

β Caryophylleneis found in black pepper and cloves and adds a spicy, herbal note to the cannabis. Varieties that have it are Cookies, Sherbet and UK Cheese.

Terpinoleneis one of my favorites. It is the dominant terpene responsible for the spicy smell in Haze. It is energetic and motivating and I’ve been smoking it as I write this. You will find it in Original Haze, Trainwreck, Jack Herer and Super Lemon Haze

Ocimeneis one of the exotics, it is often found in cannabis, but in lower quantities and is more of a complimentary rather than a dominant terpene. Varieties that have it are; Pineapple, Dream Queen, and Pink Lemonade.

As a grower, breeder and heavy user who has been selling seeds for years through my company Authentic Genetics, I recommend to all of the cultivators who grow my seeds that they stop selecting plants based upon high THC levels, fast flowering times, and heavy yield.

Unfortunately, for the past 30+ years, cannabis varieties have been selected and hybridized for the convenience of the grower and not for the overall quality of the end-user.

What I recommend is that we all start growing and selecting plants based on olfactory qualities such as flavor and scent. If food does not taste or smell good, no matter how nutritious it is, you’re probably not going to want to eat it and the same is true for cannabis. Too many varieties of cannabis in the commercial market look great, but don’t do the trick for many of my friends who smoke it.

As for effect, there is a cultivation technique that I’ve been teaching people, which is that you can dial the high of a cannabis variety by simply harvesting it at different times. Varieties that are harvested early will have a lighter and more psychedelic high, compared to the same variety harvested later into maturity, which will have a more sedated and relaxing high.

I think that we should ditch the old terminology and instead get a better understanding of what it is that we are consuming and what elements of cannabis make us feel the way we want to feel when we smoke, vape or eat our favorite flowers.

For more information on the subject, please visit my website: Authentic Genetics at

The post Ditch the Old Terminology (An Indica / Sativa Response) appeared first on High Times.

Source: Hightimes

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